- offer a significantly lower pollution potential (SOx, NOx and PM) compared to diesel
- have a favourable balance of CO2 emissions, because the complete cycle includes absorption of CO2 from the ground
- are highly biodegradable
- can be produced from waste materials such as frying oils and industrial waste oils
- can be blended with distillate fuels and applied in marine diesel engines to reduces harmful emissions
- production require excessive exploitation of land,which raises concerns about the growing destruction of habitats and biodiversity, because of the need to increase cultivated land for its production
- production systems do not have lower greenhouse gas emissions levels than fossil fuels
- production requires huge amounts of energy
- still have significant emitting pollutants
Bio-fuels are fuels that are produced through processes like hydrolysis and fermentation from biomass and can be produced from plants, energy crops or from agricultural, urban and industrial wastes with biological origins
Due to the size of the maritime industry scalability is considered to be an important factor for biofuels. This would mean enormous amounts of otherwise unproductive land should be dedicated and utilized for growth of crops, which is not available and will never be. So it is concluded that renewable bio mass alone is insufficiently scalable to supply the maritime industry and do not lead towards zero harmful emissions. However, this does not mean fuels made from renewable bio mass could not partially supply the industry.
The value chain of biofuels competes with other uses of land and is not entirely zero-emission, making it no ideal fuel of the future.